Ever since the Internet of Things has become a part of our lives, it is expected that the technology will take over the world in no time. According to Statista, it’s projected worldwide expenditure will hit $1 trillion in 2022.
To manage the constantly growing number of these devices and ensure they have the required speed and data bandwidth, telecommunication organizations took a step forward and begun investing in a new generation of wireless communications – 5G.
What this upgrade promise is the faster speed of up to 20 times faster than the current 4G at a possible 10 to 20 GB per second. Furthermore, it introduces lower latency to be more responsive to devise requests and can connect multiple devices at once with just the same level of performance. 5G will run on frequencies below or above 6 GHz and will operate using OFDM encoding.
The American AT&T is set to be the first network to launch mobile 5G in some cities this year. Verizon and T-Mobile will follow right behind to offer full national coverage of the US by 2020.
However, let’s now get to our main point of how all this is expected to impact the mobile technology ecosystem. Such technology-driven ecosystems are becoming prominent in the automotive industry.
Some major factors are set to disrupt the automotive industry. They are autonomous vehicles, connected cars, shared mobility, and electrification. These will fundamentally change the way vehicles are evolving. 5G will have a crucial role in innovative additions to connected vehicles. In this post, we’re going to consider mobility technology ecosystem and how 5G can help in its development.
Modern vehicles allow owners to monitor and even interact with themselves. Our future seems to become more and more autonomous, and many use cases rely a lot on connectivity. It leads to a growing need for wireless capacity.
Cars are now able to communicate with each other, as well as with their surroundings. They can warn others for poor road conditions, for instance. We see the vehicles that can drive themselves on long distances. They only need remote operations to direct the last mile to the end destination. Such control requires very reliable network in city areas, which have high bandwidth. It’s needed to transmit high definition video and enable better control.
4G is currently not reliable enough to handle critical applications. A network that can’t manage data traffic from autonomous vehicles or fleets, which all connect with each other in an urban environment, could be hazardous.
Connectivity requirements for future cars include network-based and direct communications. The first one enables cars to use the cellular network for connection with nearby objects. It’s also known as V2N communication. Moreover, it uses operators with commercially licensed spectrum, cloud-based services, and security features offered by networks.
On the other hand, direct connection includes V2V one, which allows vehicles to connect with each other. It helps avoid collisions and share data on traffic conditions. The V2I connection means that vehicles connect with the surrounding infrastructure. The direct connection also includes the vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) one as well. It ensures pedestrian safety.
Direct communication uses a 5,9 GHz spectrum band, which is dedicated to short-range communications. It makes it not highly dependent on the cellular network.
However, cellular networks have a crucial role when it comes to NLOS (non-line-of-sight) systems. That’s where sensors might not detect an object on the road while receiving alerts from the cellular network instead.
No matter what is the type of connection, excellent connectivity is essential to facilitate autonomy among vehicles. 5G is exactly what it is needed for more reliable communication between cars and their surroundings. That’s extremely important for overcoming safety challenges, which come with automation. 5G reduces latency and increases reliability if compared with current 4G or DSRC technologies.
V2X or vehicle-to-everything is a communication based on 5G. It’s set to support latency at ten milliseconds end to end and one millisecond over the air. The fifth-generation network provides the needed reliability, targeting 99,999 percent for ultra-reliable transmissions.
Enhanced cellular technologies are needed for such requirements. 5G is an excellent foundation for further improved latency and reliability. Furthermore, the AAS or active antenna systems, which integrate radio units with hundreds of elements provide the necessary hardware for a network capacity boost.
These systems provide the possibility to schedule multiple users on the same frequency resources at once. The improved network orchestration features will also allow dynamic allocation of capacity and cater to a huge scale of sensor communication.
The New Mobility Ecosystem
Original equipment manufacturers usually work together with tier-one suppliers. However, today, the ecosystem gets broader. Some high-tech companies enter this ecosystem, which leads to new partnerships and tier-two suppliers being able to offer their products directly to OEMs.
In the meantime, OEMs are set to invest billions if they want to gain their position across emerging technologies such as connectivity, autonomy, shared mobility, and electrification. They still have control over the end-user and vehicles as well. To stay relevant, they will have to reevaluate their role in the ecosystem. OEMs will also have to solve technical challenges, like security issues, software complexity, and connectivity management.
On the other hand, mobile-network operators will probably move beyond just offering connectivity. They now have a high position to provide local services as well. Such organizations who offer global solutions could become leading players.
Telecom-equipment and global tech giants will all benefit from the implementation of the 5G network and its application in the automotive industry. They will be able to sell directly to automotive manufacturers and road-maintenance companies. As of tech giants, they will help automakers make a seamless transition to the new technology-driven ecosystem.
Last but not least governments and larger cities also play a crucial role in shaping this new mobility technology ecosystem. They need to take care of the required roadside infrastructure for capturing and sharing data at scale.
5G – A Step Closer To The Future
The disruptive trends taking over the automotive industry are a whole new wave of innovation, which connects the vehicle with its surroundings in a more efficient way. Of course, such a revolution comes with difficult development challenges. It attracts new players to the automotive industry, ready to accommodate.
5G has been the missing puzzle piece for the success of many innovative technologies. The development of a new mobility technology ecosystem is essential for all involved industries, even if it changes the way they operate.